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Opening Minds Provider Attitudes Towards Opioid Use Scale (OM-PATOS)


The Opening Minds Provider Attitudes Toward Opioid Use Scale (OM PATOS) was developed as part of a larger project the Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC) completed in 2019.

The scale is designed for those in the helping professions who may be responding to or caring for people who are experiencing opioid use problems or are at risk of an overdose or poisoning: paramedics, fire or police services workers, health care providers, social-care providers, pharmacists, counsellors, etc. It may be used for multiple purposes, including but not limited to evaluating the impact of initiatives or programs designed to reduce stigma, for measuring the level of stigma in an organization as part of a needs assessment, as an awareness raising tool, or as a tracking or performance measure.


The OM-PATOS is based on findings from qualitative research, a scoping review, and established procedures for scale development.1 Key domains identified in this process were used to generate an item pool. We then consulted with first responders, health- and social-care providers, people with lived experience of opioid use, and research experts to examine and review the proposed items. One-on-one cognitive interviews were also conducted to ensure that the items were interpreted as designed. Pilot testing of the scale resulted in further refinements. Finally, we conducted a validation study, which led to the adoption of a 19-item single factor scale.

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