If you are in distress, you can call or text 988 at any time. If it is an emergency, call 9-1-1 or go to your local emergency department.

Assessment Framework for Mental Health Apps

Appendix B

The glossary below presents a list of key terms and concepts used in [the Enhanced Data Sovereignty Standards domain], as well as their definitions. It is provided to clarify the language, avoid the conflation of concepts, and distinguish these terms and concepts from colloquial language and understandings, where applicable.


culture. The overt and subtle value systems, traditions and beliefs that influence our decisions and actions.

distinctions-based. An approach that aims to avoid conflating the Indigenous Peoples within Canada, and instead recognizes First Nations, Inuit and Métis as separate groups, each with their own diverse cultures, traditions, communities and histories. A distinctions-based approach ensures that the unique rights, interests and circumstances of each of these groups are acknowledged, affirmed and implemented.

health equity. The absence of unjust, avoidable differences in health care access, quality, experience or outcomes.

health inequality. Differences in health between individuals, groups or communities. Measuring health inequalities is a first step toward identifying and reducing health inequities.

Indigenous data sovereignty. The collective and individual rights of Indigenous Peoples to the self-governance and management of data from and about their communities, lands and individuals.

racialized group. A social construct describing groups that have racial meanings associated with them that affect their economic, political and social life. This term is sometimes preferred over “race” because it acknowledges the process of racialization.

racism. Includes thoughts or actions that establish or reinforce the superiority or dominance of one racialized group over another. Racism exists on a spectrum and acts on multiple levels — internalized, interpersonal and systemic.

internalized racism. The acceptance by a marginalized racialized group of negative messages concerning their abilities and worth.

interpersonal racism. Racism that occurs when an individual experiences discriminatory behaviour from others.

systemic racism. Racism that occurs at societal and organizational levels, giving rise to the other forms of racism. It is often pervasive and subtle, and not always intentional. It is embedded in societal and institutional policies, regulations, legislation and ideologies that perpetuate racial disadvantage.

self-determination. A principle that concerns a person’s or nation’s right to determine and have control over their own future, political status, culture, economy and independence.

[1] As cited (pp. 21-2) in Canadian Institute for Health Information. (2022). Guidance on the use of standards for race-based and Indigenous identity data collection and health reporting in Canada. https://www.cihi.ca/en/race-based-and-indigenous-identity-data